The most common non-communicable disease affecting India today is Diabetes Mellitus. It is a metabolic disorder, in which an individual has an increased level of blood sugar.
As per research, it currently affects an estimated 143 million people worldwide and the number is growing rapidly.
In India, about 5 per cent population suffers from diabetes. Diabetes can be regarded as a potential epidemic in India with more than 62 million diabetic individuals currently diagnosed with the disease.
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a disorder affecting the pancreas which produces the hormone insulin. Insulin helps the body use food for energy. The condition is due to either insufficient insulin being produced or no insulin being secreted by the pancreatic cells, or both. Insulin works together with glucose in the bloodstream to help it enter the body’s cells for all metabolic activity. Therefore if insulin does not functioning properly, glucose cannot enter the cells and this produces an imbalance.
This end result is that glucose levels in the blood sugar tend to rise, creating a condition of high blood sugar or diabetes, and leaving the cells without glucose for the basic energy in the body. If left untreated, Diabetes can tend to cause various complications and affects the vital organs. Some Complications are Retinopathy (eye disease), Nephropathy (kidney disease) & Neuropathy (nerve disease).
What are the Symptoms of Diabetes?
The most common symptom of diabetes is fatigue and increased thirst and hunger, along with frequent urination.
- Excessive sweating
- Slow healing of wounds
Diabetes symptoms can vary from patient to patient depending on the type and age.
What are the types of diabetes?
There are two common forms of diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes.
What is Type 1 Diabetes?
In Type 1 diabetes: Affects the age group of 20-30, but it can occur at any age
In type 1 Diabetes, The insulin-producing cells are damaged and no insulin is produced in the body for it to utilise it for energy. Generally one would have to use insulin injections to control their blood glucose in this type of Diabetes.
What is Type 2 Diabetes?
Affects 40 yrs. of age and who are predisposed to being overweight. In this condition enough insulin is not produced or the insulin does not work optimally. It generally involves a combination of diet, weight management and exercise. Sometimes treatment also may include oral glucose-lowering medications or insulin injections.
What are the causes of diabetes?
- A Family history of diabetes
- Being overweight can predispose to diabetes
- Any major stress, physical injury or surgery
- Side effects of medications such as steroids and blood pressure medications
- Injury to pancreas
- Other causes could be any autoimmune disease, & hypertension,
- Uncontrolled cholesterol
- Alcohol and Smoking
- Sedentary life style and age
- Pregnancy induced diabetes also known as gestational diabetes
How is diabetes diagnosed?
1) Fasting blood sugar and Post Prandial blood sugar level .A Normal fasting blood glucose is between 70 and 100 mg/dl.
A person is said to be diabetic if his fasting blood glucose level of 126 mg/dl we say he is crossed the borderline and if the random blood glucose level is 200 mg/dl.
2) Another accurate test to measure is Glycosylated haemoglobin, or HbA1c, in the blood. This test determines blood glucose control for the past 2 to 3 months.
How to cure Diabetes?
Diabetes is treated and controlled by the following:
Maintaining your blood sugar level by having a balance diet, taking the medication and exercise is vital for controlling diabetes. It is advisable also to maintain Blood cholesterol and triglyceride (lipid) levels. Managing blood pressure is also essential.
How to Control &Prevent Diabetes?
1) Exercise, Reduce Stress and proper diet is vital in managing diabetes
2) Some tips on a diabetic diet are:
- Reduce sugar and intake, low carbohydrate diet
- Have smaller meals and spread out over the day
- Eating a variety of whole-grain foods, fruits and vegetables
3) Taking diabetic medicine in proper dosage and time
4) Monitoring your blood glucose at home if necessary
5) Carrying out laboratory test as prescribed for status of blood sugar.
Living with diabetes can be difficult. You need to take full control of your diabetes…. It’s in your hands to make it better.
In case of any further queries regarding diabetes diagnosis, treatment, investigation and overall care do visit us at Wockhardt Hospital.
Wockhardt Hospitals, a chain of tertiary care super-specialty hospitals has more than 25 years of experience in the creation and management of Super Specialty Hospitals in India.
We are a premiere hospital in the country specializing in the treatment of all medical conditions. We provide comprehensive diagnostic and treatment under one roof to our patients. Our medical speciality at Wockhardt Hospitals has renowned clinical expertise in treating diabetes and providing overall management.
Wockhardt Hospitals have been regarded as centers of excellence in medical science with facilities in North Mumbai (Mira road), South Mumbai (Mumbai Central), Navi Mumbai (Vashi), Nagpur, Nasik, Rajkot and Surat. Wockhardt Hospitals is having state-of-the-art infrastructure. Our prime objective is patient safety and quality of care all levels. The guiding philosophy is to serve and enrich the Quality of Life of patients and to make life win.