What is Dermatology?
Dermatology is a medical speciality that is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the skin, hair and nail. The speciality involves diagnosis of normal skin disorders to cancers, autoimmune disorders , cosmetic and ageing of the skin, fat, hair, nails and oral and genital membranes, and the management of these certain investigations and therapies.
What is the function of skin?
Skin is the largest organ of the human body and functions as:
1) Protect the internal organs from harmful external influences, such as bacteria, viruses, allergens, disease, sun, wind and rain.
2) Holds body fluids in and prevents dehydration
3) Sensory organ for external stimulations
4) Maintains your body temperature
5) Synthesis of vitamin D from the sun
What are the layers of the skin?
- Epidermis, the outermost layer of skin, provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone.
- Dermis, beneath the epidermis, contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands.
- The deeper subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is made of fat and connective tissue.
- The skin’s colour is created by special cells called melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin. Melanocytes are located in the epidermis.
What are the types of skin conditions treated by a dermatologist?
- Skin cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells in the skin. Left untreated, these cells can spread to other organs and tissues, such as lymph nodes and bone.
- Lupus is an autoimmune disease
- Warts are raised bumps on your skin caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).
- Psoriasis : Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition that is marked by red and sometimes scaly patches of skin
- Acne: skin has tiny holes called pores, which can become blocked by oil, bacteria, dead skin cells, and dirt forming pimples .
- Eczema is a common skin condition marked itchy and inflamed patches of skin. It is also known as atopic dermatitis. It is more common in babies and young children. It occurs on the faces of infants, as well as inside the elbows and behind the knees of children, teenagers, and adults. It is caused by an overactive immune system
- Corns and calluses are patches of hard, thickened skin. These can be anywhere on your body, but they’re typically found on your feet
- Vitiligo is a condition in which you lose the pigment of your skin. Pigment, or melanin, causes skin colour and is produced by cells called “melanocytes. These patches are usually areas of your body that are exposed to the sun, such as your, hands ,face, arms and feet.
- Hives: also known as urticaria, are itchy, raised welts that are found on the skin. They are usually red, pink, or flesh-coloured, and sometimes sting or hurt. In most cases, hives are caused by an allergic reaction to a medication or food or a reaction to an irritant.
- Herpes Simples: Shingles, or herpes zoster, occurs when the dormant chickenpox virus, varicella-zoster, is reactivated in your nerve tissues. Early signs of shingles include tingling and localized pain.
- Types of fungal infections also treated.
What are the different modalities for skin treatment?
- Treatment of skin diseases consists of
- Systemic drugs (antibacterial, antifungal and corticosteroids)
- Local drugs(oral and injectable)
- local therapies(cold compress, soaks and bath )
- Intralesional Injection For Skin Diseases