Most common injury and accident during Diwali season mostly seen whilst lighting fire crackers. Burns is damage to the skin caused by contact with dry heat. It may be caused by fire, flames, steam, hot liquids, hot metal, sunlight, electricity or chemicals.
The degree of burn varies:
(I) First Degree (Superficial) – Involves only top layer of the skin and is red and dry and the burn is generally painful. The area may swell. Most burns are first degree burns.
(II) Second degree (Partial – Thickness) – Involves both the epidermis and dermis. The area is red and blisters may open and weep fluid, making the skin appear wet. These types of burns are usually painful and the area often swells.
(III) Third Degree (Full Thickness) – Destroys both the layers of the skin with muscles, bones, blood vessels and nerves. These burns may look brown or charred with tissues underneath sometimes appearing white.
- Objective is to prevent shock and or infection
- Immerse the burnt area in cool water or by applying clothes soaked in cool water.
- Remove jewellery and constrictive clothing before swelling or blisters occurs.
- Cover the area with a dry, sterile dressing and not cotton or other fluffy material.
- Drop, Cover and Roll if caught fire or cover the person with a blanket immediately
- In case of a 3rd degree burn ensures airway is open, tilt head backwards.
- Leave clothes on the skin.
- Elevate arm, legs, and hands
- Take patient to the hospital immediately
- Don’t place a burn under extreme water pressure
- Don’t remove the cloth that is stuck to the burnt area.
- Don’t apply butter ointment, oil on the area affected.
- Do not put ice as it may reduce will healing time.
- Do not break the blisters