Heart surgery in children are indicated to repair heart defects a child is born with CHD (congenital heart defects) and heart diseases a child gets after birth. The surgery is needed for the child's wellbeing. There are many kinds of heart defects ranging from minor to serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels outside the heart. Some heart defects may need surgery right after the baby is born and for few defects the surgery can wait. Certain heart defects may not need repair as they can heal as the baby grows. Symptoms for which surgery is must are:
Advantages: With new advances in testing and treatment, most children who have congenital heart defects survive to adulthood and can lead healthy, productive lives.
What is congenital heart disease (CHD)?
A congenital heart defect is a malformation of the heart existing at birth. There are many different types of CHD.
How is CHD diagnosed?
Some of the congenital defects are diagnosed before birth. Then a plan is fully discussed with parents and appropriate treatments are considered soon after the child birth. Abnormality in routine tests and defects detected in growth charts also lead to the suspicion and diagnosis of CHD in children.
How is CHD treated?
For CHD with life-threatening concerns must be surgically corrected as early as possible within few hours to days after birth. In other cases, the surgery can be planned in the growing years.
Angioplasty is a specialised procedure performed in a Cath lab (cardiac catheterisation laboratory). Since the patients are awake and alert through the procedure, they are given medication before and during angioplasty procedure to help relax
Coronary angiography is an imaging technique or a radiological test that helps visualize the insides of the coronary arteries. It shows the exact location and severity of any plaque formation and consequent narrowing of the coronary arteries. This helps the doctor to decide on what treatment is needed.
Our heart is located in our chest cavity and is a pump made of special muscles known as myocardium. Our heart is divided into four chambers; two upper chambers known as auricles (atria) and two lower chambers are known as ventricles. They are interconnected by a passage and the opening and closing is controlled by valves.
Arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels form the vascular system of our body and vascular surgery is a specialty dealing with diseases affecting the vascular system The diseases affecting our vascular system involve the obstruction in the blood flow due to blockages (aneurysms) in the vessels.
The rhythmicity of the heart beat is based on the electric impulses. These impulses are initiated by the contraction of the cardiac muscles also known as myocardium.
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a type of surgery that improves blood flow to the heart. Surgeons use CABG to treat people who have severe coronary heart disease (CHD). Symptoms of coronary artery disease include chest pain, fatigue, palpitations, abnormal heart rhythms and shortness of breath.
A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is an opening or hole in the wall that separates the two lower chambers of the heart. This wall is the ventricular septum. The hole causes oxygen-rich blood to leak from the left side of the heart to the right side.
The upper chambers of the heart are divided a wall called “interatrial septum”. The defect in this wall is known as Atrial septal defect (ASD). It is a form of a congenital heart defect, the defect the baby is born with.