Heart valve surgery is used to repair or replace diseased heart valves. Blood flows between different chambers of the heart must flow through a heart valve. Human heart has four valves namely Tricuspid, Pulmonary, Mitral and Aortic Valves. If a valve is not working correctly, blood flow is impaired either by leakage or by back flow. If a valve is narrowed blood flow through the heart gets restricted. In other words the person does not get enough oxygen and the heart is deprived of oxygen leading to fatigue and fainting episodes. The minor valve problems are treated with medication. But if the heart valve damage is severe, a procedure is required to repair or replace the malfunctioning valve. The valve repair and replacement surgeries are high risk surgeries and must be performed only in the well-equipped institutions under specialists.
Advantages: The valve repair and replacement surgeries help repair and replace the defects in the flow of blood in the heart chambers offering a long term solution in fact almost a lifelong solution to the patients.
Which is the most common valve replacement surgery?
The aortic valve is the most common valve to be replaced because it cannot be repaired.
What is an open heart surgery?
In an open heart surgery, the surgeon makes a large surgical cut to reach the heart and aorta. Keeping the patient on heart-lung bypass machine the surgeon repairs the damaged valves or replaces them with another valve.
What is the different kind of valves?
There are two types of valves, mechanical made from man-made materials such as metal, ceramic etc. and the biological valves are made from human or animal tissues.
Angioplasty is a specialised procedure performed in a Cath lab (cardiac catheterisation laboratory). Since the patients are awake and alert through the procedure, they are given medication before and during angioplasty procedure to help relax
Coronary angiography is an imaging technique or a radiological test that helps visualize the insides of the coronary arteries. It shows the exact location and severity of any plaque formation and consequent narrowing of the coronary arteries. This helps the doctor to decide on what treatment is needed.
Our heart is located in our chest cavity and is a pump made of special muscles known as myocardium. Our heart is divided into four chambers; two upper chambers known as auricles (atria) and two lower chambers are known as ventricles. They are interconnected by a passage and the opening and closing is controlled by valves.
Arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels form the vascular system of our body and vascular surgery is a specialty dealing with diseases affecting the vascular system The diseases affecting our vascular system involve the obstruction in the blood flow due to blockages (aneurysms) in the vessels.
The rhythmicity of the heart beat is based on the electric impulses. These impulses are initiated by the contraction of the cardiac muscles also known as myocardium.
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a type of surgery that improves blood flow to the heart. Surgeons use CABG to treat people who have severe coronary heart disease (CHD). Symptoms of coronary artery disease include chest pain, fatigue, palpitations, abnormal heart rhythms and shortness of breath.
A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is an opening or hole in the wall that separates the two lower chambers of the heart. This wall is the ventricular septum. The hole causes oxygen-rich blood to leak from the left side of the heart to the right side.
The upper chambers of the heart are divided a wall called “interatrial septum”. The defect in this wall is known as Atrial septal defect (ASD). It is a form of a congenital heart defect, the defect the baby is born with.