Mastectomy is procedure involving the removal of the whole breast. There are five different types of mastectomy: "simple" or "total" mastectomy modified radical mastectomy, radical mastectomy, partial mastectomy, and subcutaneous (nipple-sparing) mastectomy.
1)"Simple" or "total" mastectomy
Simple or total mastectomy concentrates on the breast tissue itself. The surgeon does not perform axillary lymph node dissection (removal of lymph nodes in the underarm area). Sometimes, however, lymph nodes are occasionally removed because they happen to be located within the breast tissue taken during surgery.
No muscles are removed from beneath the breast.
2) Simple Mastectomy
A simple or total mastectomy is appropriate for women with multiple or large areas of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and for women seeking prophylactic mastectomies — that is, breast removal in order to prevent any possibility of breast cancer occurring.
3) Modified radical mastectomy
Modified radical mastectomy involves the removal of both breast tissue and lymph nodes:
In this case the surgeon removes the entire breast as well as Axillary lymph node dissection is performed, during which levels I and II of underarm lymph nodes are removed .No muscles are removed from beneath the breast.
Most people with invasive breast cancer who decide to have mastectomies will receive modified radical mastectomies so that the lymph nodes can be examined. Examining the lymph nodes helps to identify whether cancer cells may have spread beyond the breast.
4) Radical mastectomy
Radical mastectomy is the most extensive type of mastectomy. The surgeon removes the entire breast as well underarm lymph nodes are removed
Today, radical mastectomy is recommended only when the breast cancer has spread to the chest muscles under the breast.
Partial mastectomy is the removal of the cancerous part of the breast tissue and some normal tissue around it. While lumpectomy is technically a form of partial mastectomy, more tissue is removed in partial mastectomy than in lumpectomy.
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