Brain tumors are abnormal growth or cancers within the brain. Earlier having a brain tumor meant awaiting certain death. These days with advancement of therapy for brain tumors many can look forward to longer life spans with the diagnosis of brain tumors.Treatment for brain tumors includes surgery (minimally invasive), chemotherapy with anticancer drugs and radiation therapy.
I. Brain tumor surgery: Before the surgery the scalp area is cleaned and shaved. The scalp is cleansed with an antiseptic lotion before the operation. Detailed images of the tumor are obtained beforehand using CT scans and MRI scans of the head. The operation in most cases is performed under general anesthesia wherein the patient is rendered unconscious.
II.Chemotherapy: These are anticancer medications required in brain cancers. Anticancer drugs may be given as injections and sometimes as tablets or capsules. Chemotherapy may be given during and after radiation therapy with or without surgery. Common side effects of anticancer drugs include nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal upset, anemia, bleeding tendencies, propensity for infections, hair loss, appetite loss, mouth ulcers, weakness etc.
III. Radiation therapy: This therapy uses high energy x-rays, gamma ray, or protons beams to kills brain tumor cells. Radiation therapy usually follows surgery. The radiation kills the remaining tumors cells after surgery. External radiation therapy involves delivering radiation using large X ray like machines of frequent and regular visits to the hospital.
An Arterio-Venous Malformations (AVM) is a tangle of abnormal and poorly formed blood vessels (arteries and veins), with an innate propensity to bleed. An AVM can occur anywhere in the body, but brain and spinal AVMs present substantial risks when they bleed.
A cranioplasty is performed to correct a deformity or defect of the skull. The deformity/defect could be congenital, as a result of trauma or acquired for example after a previous surgery involving the skull. A craniotomy is the most commonly performed surgery for brain tumour removal.
Lumbar fusion (Arthrodesis) is a major surgery performed to permanently join together two or more bones in the spine so there is no movement between them. These bones are called vertebrae. A lumbar fusion surgery is designed to stop the motion at a painful vertebral segment, which in turn should decrease pain generated from the joint.
Lamina is part of the bone that makes up a vertebra in the spine. Laminectomy is surgery to remove the lamina. Laminectomy is also performed to remove bone spurs in the spine. The procedure helps to reduce the pressure off the spinal nerves or spinal cord.
Aneurysm repair is a surgical procedure to correct an aneurysm, a weak area in a blood vessel wall that causes the blood vessel to bulge or balloon out and sometimes burst (rupture). It may cause:-Bleeding into an area around the brain, heart, abdomen-Bleeding that forms a collection of blood (hematoma)