The Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass - often called gastric bypass - is considered the 'gold standard' of weight loss surgery.
There are two components to the procedure.
- First phase of the surgery involves creation of a small stomach pouch, approximately one ounce dividing the top of the stomach from the rest of the stomach.
- The first portion of the small intestine is divided, and the bottom end of the divided small intestine is brought up and connected to the newly created small stomach pouch.
- The two parts are then connected where by the stomach acids and digestive enzymes bypass the stomach and first portion of small intestine which eventually mixes with the food.
- The gastric bypass functions in the following way:
- the newly created stomach pouch is substantially smaller and allows significantly smaller meals to accumulate, this assists into less calories being consumed . The bypass also reduces the process of digestion of food by the smaller stomach pouch and less absorption of nutrients and calories takes place by the small intestine as no food pass through it .
- Most significantly, the rerouting of the food stream produces changes in gut hormones that stimulates satiety, subdues the hunger, and reverses one of the primary mechanisms by which obesity induces type 2 diabetes.
- Produces significant long-term weight loss (60 to 80 percent excess weight loss)
- Restricts the amount of food that can be consumed and increases energy outflow
- Changes in gut hormones that reduce appetite and enhance satiety
- Typical maintenance of >50% excess weight loss
- Is technically a more complex operation than the AGB or LSG and potentially could give rise to complications.
- Can lead to long-term vitamin/mineral deficiencies particularly deficits in vitamin B12, iron, calcium, and folate
- Generally has a longer hospital stay than the AGB
- Requires observance to dietary recommendations, life-long vitamin/mineral supplementation, and follow-up compliance